Confederate Symbols in Public Spaces

The topic of Confederate memorials and monuments in public spaces has been an issue discussed for over one hundred years. After the Civil War, Confederate sympathizing genealogical and social organizations acted as historical gatekeepers, producing historical narratives and public monuments to their fallen fathers and brothers. Groups such as the United Daughters of the Confederacy […]


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A Response to Hamza Yusuf

I remember sitting in my history of Islam classes, waiting for the professor to talk about West Africa. Waiting for the person who has a doctoral degree in Islamic studies to speak on Mali or Ghana. Waited for him to talk about the glorious empires that black African Muslims produced, but it never happened. I […]

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Urbanization of Timbuktu

  How Islam and Urbanization impacted 12th century Timbuktu. With Picture Analysis. The urbanization of historical cities has been a point of interest for many historians. How cities grow and mesh all the while absorbing ideas from different identities. Timbuktu, during the reign of Mansa Musa was no different, it became a cosmopolitan intellectual city […]

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